By Laura McPherson
Tommo So is a Dogon language with nearly 60,000 audio system in Mali, West Africa. As simply the second one complete grammatical description of a Dogon language, this quantity is a severe source for fixing the secret of Dogon's genetic association with different languages in Africa. Tommo So is an SOV language with setting apart nominal morphology and agglutinative verbal morphology; suffixes at the verb mark tense/aspect/negation in addition to topic contract. The phonology is delicate to degrees of verbal morphology in that variable vowel concord applies much less often as one strikes to outer layers of the morphology. The tone process of Tommo So is of typological curiosity in either its phonological and syntactic instantiations. Phonologically, it's a two-tone method of H and L, yet those distinct tones distinction with a surface-underspecified tone. Grammatically, the lexical tone of a be aware is usually overwritten via syntactically-induced overlays. for instance, an inalienable noun's tone can be changed with L whether it is possessed through a non-pronominal possessor, and by means of both H or HL if the possessor is pronominal. The language has additionally innovated a chain of locative quasi-verbs and concentration debris delicate to pragmatic components like walk in the park.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Tommo So
4 for more on phonotactic restrictions. The following pairs show that voicing is contrastive for labial stops (/p/ vs. /b/), that place of articulation is contrastive for voiceless stops (/p/ vs. /t, k/) and that nasality is contrastive for labial stops (/p/ vs. /m/). 2 /b/ The last subsection showed that /b/, fully voiced in Tommo So, often stands in for a word-medial /f/ in loanwords. It is also stands in for /v/ in French loanwords like avion ‘airplane’, yielding Tommo So pronunciation àbíɔ̀n.
6. 4 Key tonal changes Grammatical tone is very prevalent in Tommo So, with typically word level tone changes in both the nominal and verbal realms. 4–5. 2 Verbal inﬂection The basic word order is SOV; the inﬂected verb (be that auxiliary or otherwise) comes at the end of the sentence. Like nominal stems, verb stems in Tommo So belong to one of two tonal classes: /H/ or /LH/ with the L on the ﬁrst syllable or mora (on monosyllabic verbs). In the rare monomoraic verbs, /LH/ surfaces as simply [L] in the absence of a second mora.
The progressive is made up of a participle and an auxiliary verb, either ‘have’ =sɛ or ‘be’ =wɔ. In my consultants’ speech, there is no discernible diﬀerence between the two forms. In the dialect described by Plungian (1995), however, the former is used for the simple progressive and while the latter is used for an iterative progressive (Plungian 1995). The participial suﬃx is -gú (occasionally -nú), which comes with no grammatical tone overlay. Because of this, I typically use the progressive to identify the underlying stem.
A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura McPherson