By Berdanier, Carolyn D
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L. 1985. Phys. Sports Med. 13: 76–90. can be used. The figure 72% is an average figure derived from careful direct measurements of the water content of lean tissue. Total body water (TBW) and body fat must also be determined. TBW can be measured by infusing heavy water (deuterium), allowing this to equilibrate within the body and then withdrawing a sample of blood. ” Knowing the concentration of the deuterated water, the volume that was infused, and the concentration in the blood sample withdrawn, one can calculate the volume of dilution of the infused labeled water.
Part of training is to increase muscle fatty acid oxidation while also increasing the glycogen–glucose reserve in the muscle. The so-called glycogen-loading technique used in training endurance athletes, dictates the exhaustion of the muscle glycogen store followed by rest and glycogen repletion just prior to the competitive event. During the rest/repletion period a high-carbohydrate diet is consumed. This exhaustion/repletion routine results in an increased supply of glucose from glycogen within the muscle.
That fatty acids were used is seen in the last column, showing that the trained subjects consumed less glucose per minute than did the untrained subjects. Training also has effects on a number of hormones. 47 reported that plasma ghrelin levels were significantly increased following exercise by trained male athletes. Ghrelin is a small peptide involved in growth hormone secretion and in energy homeostasis. 6 Summary of the effects of training on metabolism and body composition Decreased RQ during exercise Decreased fat mass Increased muscle massa Increased fatty acid mobilization during exercise Increased glucose synthesis by the liver Increased aerobic capacity of muscle Improved glucose tolerance Decreased need for insulin to facilitate glucose use Decreased heat production via activation of uncoupling proteins in musclea May be localized; depends on the types of muscles used for the activity.
Advanced nutrition by Berdanier, Carolyn D