By Yair Wiseman, Song Jiang
Publish 12 months note: First released September 30 2009
As any program working on a working laptop or computer uses the working approach, the capability impression of enhancing parts reminiscent of reminiscence administration, strategy scheduling, dossier structures, and machine drivers is great. Advanced working platforms and Kernel purposes: thoughts and Technologies discusses non-distributed working platforms that gain researchers, academicians, and practitioners aspiring to delve into this topic sector and examine extra in this very important box of analysis.
This leading edge booklet comprises an summary of topical concerns, tools, and developments within the box of one-processor working structures.
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Extra info for Advanced Operating Systems and Kernel Applications: Techniques and Technologies
Other objects are explicitly allocated and deallocated by the driver, in which case Nooks knows their lifetimes exactly. In still other cases, Nooks relies in the semantics of the object and its use. For example, drivers allocate a timer data structure to register for a future callback. Nooks adds this object to the object tracker when a driver calls the kernel to add the timer and removes it when the timer fires, at which point it is no longer used. The object-tracking code is conservative, in that it may under-estimate the lifetime of an object and unnecessarily add and remove the same object from the database multiple times.
The driver begins in state S0, before the driver has been loaded. Once the driver is loaded and initialized, the driver enters state S1. When the driver receives a request to send packets, it enters state S2, where there is a packet outstanding. When the driver notifies the kernel that the send is complete, it returns to state S1. The right side of Figure 1(b) shows a similar state machine for a sound-card driver. This driver may be opened, configured between multiple states, and closed. The state-machine model aids in designing and understanding a recovery process that seeks to restore the driver state by clarifying the state to which the driver is recovering.
Devices attach to a computer through a bus, such as PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) or USB (Universal Serial Bus), which is responsible for detecting attached devices and making them available to software. When detected, the operating system locates and loads the appropriate device driver. Communication between the driver and its device depends on the connection bus. For PCI devices, the driver communicates directly with the device through regions of the computer’s physical address space that are mapped onto the PCI bus or through I/O ports.
Advanced Operating Systems and Kernel Applications: Techniques and Technologies by Yair Wiseman, Song Jiang