By Haig, Geoffrey L.J.
The Iranian languages, as a result of their unheard of time-depth of attestation, represent one of many only a few cases the place a shift from accusative alignment to split-ergativity is absolutely documented. but remarkably, inside of historic syntax, the Iranian case has got in simple terms very superficial assurance. This e-book presents the 1st in-depth remedy of alignment swap in Iranian, from outdated Persian (5 C. BC) to the current. the 1st a part of the ebook examines the declare that ergativity in center Iranian emerged from an outdated Iranian agented passive building. This view is rejected in favour of a thought which hyperlinks the emergence of ergativity to exterior ownership. therefore the first mechanisms concerned isn't reanalysis, however the extension of a pre-existing building. The suggestion of Non-Canonical Subjecthood performs a pivotal position, which within the current account is associated with the semantics of what's termed oblique Participation.? within the moment a part of the e-book, a comparative examine modern West Iranian is undertaken. it may be proven that during the next advancements within the morphosyntax, specific parts similar to contract, nominal case marking, or the grammar of cliticisation, in truth built remarkably independently of each other. It used to be this de-coupling of sub-systems of the morphosyntax that resulted in the infamous multiplicity of alignment varieties in Iranian, a proven fact that additionally characterises past-tense alignments within the sister department of Indo-European, Indo-Aryan. in addition to information from greater than 20 Iranian languages, provided in a fashion that renders them obtainable to the non-specialist, there's broad dialogue of extra normal subject matters akin to the adequacy of practical money owed of alterations in case platforms, discourse strain and the position of animacy, the concept of float, and the query of alignment in early Indo-European.
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Additional resources for Alignment Change in Iranian Languages: A Construction Grammar Approach
The system of tense and voice oppositions in Old Persian has been reconstructed by Skjærvø (1985). , Sogdian, additional stems can be identified (Sims-Williams 1989: 187). Re-assessing the m. k. construction 43 Table 1. Voice distinctions available in different tenses (Old Persian) Tense Present Imperf. Habitual past Completed past Perfect Active Passive + + + + + + − + Participle are used by Skjærvø (1985) to describe Tense/Aspect nuances over and above the more widely recognized tenses Aorist and Imperfect.
The most important of these claims are that (a) the acquisition of subjecthood always begins with an NP with no subject properties (Cole et al. 1980: 742); and (b) syntax before morphology, that is, the transfer of subject properties begins with behavioural properties, and is then followed by coding properties. In other words, no case is attested of a language where a non-subject acquires the coding properties associated with subjects of that language before it has acquired the behavioural properties associated with subjects.
The first feature of the Genitive I wish to examine is its involvement in the cliticization process. In Old Persian, the oblique forms of the personal pronouns could be realized as clitics (clitic forms of the Nominative do not exist). , a Wackernagel position). Examples of Genitive clitics are found in (19), repeated here for convenience, and (31), while examples of Accusative clitic pronouns are provided in (32) and (33). (19) 11 avaT¯a=š¯am hamaranam kartam do:PTCPL thus=3 PL:GEN battle ‘thus by them battle was done’ Table 2 does not include the Ablative clitic pronouns because unlike the Genitive and Accusative pronouns, the Ablative pronoun clitics are not special clitics (in the sense of Zwicky 1977): they cliticize directly to their adjacent governing constituent, generally a preposition, rather than moving to a special position in the phrase.
Alignment Change in Iranian Languages: A Construction Grammar Approach by Haig, Geoffrey L.J.