By Marc A. Williams
Pt. 1. floor amendment concepts -- pt. 2. Analytical options and purposes
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Extra resources for Allergens and respiratory pollutants: The role of innate immunity
Non-professional antigen-presenting cells have a limited ability to express cell-surface MHC class II, usually as a consequence of acute inflammation and exposure to IFNγ. Such non-professional antigen-presenting cells include various epithelial cell sub-populations, dermal fibroblasts and pancreatic beta-islet cells. Since such cells do not express co-stimulatory molecules or secrete the necessary repertoire of CD4+ T cell stimulatory cytokines (see below for additional details), they possess only a limited ability to fully activate CD4+ T cells.
References 1 Porter M, Karp M, Killedar S, Bauer SM, Guo J, Williams D, Breysse P, Georas SN and Williams MA. (2007). Diesel-enriched particulate matter functionally activates human dendritic cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 37: 706–19. An introduction to allergic inflammation 27 2 Williams MA, Porter M, Horton M, Guo J, Roman J, Williams D, Breysse P and Georas SN. (2007). Ambient particulate matter directs nonclassic dendritic cell activation and a mixed T(H)1/T(H)2-like cytokine response by naive CD4(+) T cells.
Several studies have uncovered putative genetic susceptibility factors that may predispose individuals to the development of allergic asthma as well as perhaps other allergic diseases in the lung. A number of candidate genes have been identified as possessing a contributory role in the development of allergic diseases. Foremost among these are those genes located in the chomosomal region 5q31–33, including IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, TGFβ and GM-CSF, that are collectively thought to program immune responsiveness from Th1 to Th2, isotytpe switching to IgE (as opposed to IgG) and activation of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils that contribute to many of the hallmarks of the immediate hypersensitivity response in allergic or atopic inflammation.
Allergens and respiratory pollutants: The role of innate immunity by Marc A. Williams